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Showing posts with label disease. Show all posts
Showing posts with label disease. Show all posts

May 19, 2009

Tuberculosis :


Overview

Tuberculosis remains a very common disease throughout the world. Tuberculosis, or TB, is a chronic bacterial infection. Rarely, it can produce disease within several weeks and commonly it can lay dormant for many years before producing symptoms.

Exposure to the infection is usually through the lungs. Within several months of exposure, there is often a spot that develops on the x-ray of the lungs. The spread of the disease is generally limited. However, the disease sometimes becomes reactivated. This can occur when the immune system is compromised. Chronic illness, alcoholism, the use of immunosuppressive drugs, AIDS and cancer can all produce this situation.

Cause of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is caused by the microorganism, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The germ is transmitted in the air from one person to another, and through cows with non-pasteurized milk. Frequently, onset of clinical symptoms and progression of the disease can be tied to impairment or damage to the immune system.

Signs and Symptoms

Most commonly, early stages of tuberculosis have no symptoms. Sometimes, the person infected may have cough and fever. As the disease progresses, it produces more apparent symptoms. These include fever, weight loss, chronic fatigue, and heavy sweating, especially at night.


As tuberculosis worsens in the lungs, it produces sputum that becomes progressively bloody, yellow, thick or gray. There is often chest pain or discomfort and shortness of breath. Cloudy or reddish urine can occur. Other symptoms can develop when other organ systems become involved, such as the brain. Lumps may develop in the nasal cavity.
Pott's disease or tuberculosis of the spine is associated with back pain, fever, chills and night sweats. Varying degrees of weakness or numbness may occur in the legs or around the genitals and rectum.


Symptoms of Yellow Fever

In mild cases the symptoms are similar to influenza, but serious cases develop a high fever and may lead to internal bleeding, kidney failure and meningitis. A classic feature of yellow fever is hepatitis, which is the reason for the yellow coloring of the skin (jaundice) and the name of the disease.


Treatment of Yellow Fever

There is no effective treatment against the yellow fever virus. The initial flue-like symptoms can be treated with ibuprofen or aspirin. Serious cases will always have to be hospitalized. The mortality rate for yellow fever ranges from 5 to 40 percent. Best get that vaccine if you are able to.

How Can I Avoid It?

If you are traveling in an area where yellow fever is endemic (see map) you should get the vaccination and also avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes. Wear long sleeves and long pants, use an insect repellent containing DIET, sleep under a mosquito net at night and try and stay in rooms with air-conditioning or a fan. Burning a mosquito coil at night is also very effective at keeping the mosquitoes away.

May 18, 2009

Dengue :


* How to fight Dengue? Causes and Prevention of Dengue Fever...


* Dengue fever is a flu kind of illness spread by mosquito bites. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are caused by any of the dengue family virus. This is also widely known as 'Break bone fever' due to the severe joint pain caused during the attack. Dengue can be diagnosed by blood test. The infected person as such cannot spread the infection but can be a source to spread it.
* Dengue hemorrhagic fever is often complicated and severe. This rather can be termed as a complication dengue fever. Those bitten by the mosquito can get dengue fever and those already infected once if infected again are prone to higher risk of getting dengue hemorrhagic fever.
* Dengue is an infectious disease causing frequent epidemics. There are various factors that contribute like lack of effective mosquito control, lack of public health systems to control the epidemic, the increase usage of plastic items which are the breeding sites of the mosquitoes.
* Dengue is spread by the bite of an 'Ades' Mosquito. This mosquito bites the infected person and then bites someone else who is not affected thus transmitting the infection. These mosquitoes are active during the day time and spread the infection during day time. These mosquitoes live among human beings and breed in discarded tyres, flower pots, water stores etc.,
* Dengue fever starts suddenly accompanied by headache, severe joint pain ,rashes, nausea and lack of appetite. The illness can last up to 10 days and the complete recovery could take about four to six weeks. Widely the dengue infections result in relatively mild illness however in some cases it may lead to the dengue hemorrhagic fever. In the complicated stage the blood vessels start to leak and cause bleeding through mouth, nose and gums. This is most prevalent among children and young adults. This stage requires close medical attention.

Treatment for Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic fever :
As far as the treatment is concerned there is no specific course, However the affected person is treated with Paracetamol to bring down the fever. The person is usually advised to drink lots of fluids. The infected person should be isolated until recovery from the rest of the family to prevent further infections.

Although there is no vaccine to prevent this epidemic certain preventive measures as specified below can be taken to control the epidemic.

Preventive Measures to control Dengue Fever :
* Use mosquito repellents.
* Discard all unwanted items getting gathered around the living area to avoid the breeding of mosquitoes.
* Keep the water stores clean and closed.
* Keep yourself well covered when outside.
* Take prompt medical advice once fever starts.